Friday, March 25, 2016

If You Write The DataBase First You Are Doing It Wrong!

In an epiphany, I figured out why developers want to make the database first. In root cause analysis fashion, let's play the 5-whys game and find out.


1. Why start with the DB? You need data in order to start developing the rest of the app.


2. Why do you need data first? Because you aren't practicing TDD.


3. Why aren't you practicing TDD? Because it takes you longer.


4. Why do you think it takes longer? Because it means you have to write more code.


5. Why does TDD necessarily mean that you have to write more code? Because you've written Unit Tests before and its difficult to write them when your business logic depends on the data, so the Unit Tests become lengthy, take a long time to run, and are costly to maintain.


So it comes down to a myth that is invented from having done testing wrong in the first place. Perhaps there's an assumption that TDD is about testing, when it is really about design. Dr. Dobbs sums up the concept in this article, basically pointing out that the tests make you think about the code. There are endless sources on the web, in books and in magazines that can take you through the details. I will be staying focused on how TDD helps avoid the costs of developing the data layer first.


If your development efforts start with a test, the first thing you may soon notice is that you will need to provide some kind of data to the business logic. However, rather than writing a database right then and there you will use one or more of several patterns for substituting an actual DB in your code - repository pattern, resource, fixture, stub, mock, etc. This will allow you to focus on what the app DOES instead of the low-level details of a datastore. You will control the data that drives the logic in a scientific way for each scenario by providing the combinations of values that are expected for each scenario. The art is in knowing how to write the tests, which takes practice.


Imagine if you had a DB first and you operated under the assumption that certain bits of data would be needed for certain methods of accessing the data would be needed. Now when it turns out they are not needed, or that your assumptions were incorrect, you've actually just done a lot of unnecessary work - e.g. wrote more code which took longer and wasn't needed.


Eventually, and maybe in the first few iterations of test-then-code, you will begin to write some models that can be represented by a data model. As your application takes shape, you should be safely refactoring so that the entire application becomes more cohesive in time. You have the tests to back you in the refactoring process. One of the reasons to start TDD at the system interfaces.


Additionally, as you add features during the project, your manual testing or even Unit Tests will take longer to execute and you will end up creating and deleting data and having to update data update scripts to set up a bunch of data which is more code to maintain. In the end you will end up doing more work than of you'd written the tests while designing - iterating test, then code to make it pass, then test...bit by bit.


When you eventually get to the point where you will need to integrate, you will now understand what you really need to persist to a database, but not until it is needed. If you start in this way, the way of TDD, then you will know that you do NOT need the database to write the application and you will see it as the outer layer of the onion that it is.


One final nugget - the most important reason for a repository pattern is NOT so that you can swap the underlying data store technology, though it is a compelling myth. More details about this and how to start TDD in future posts.




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