This challenge has 3 parts (tip: try not to get too fancy and get bogged down on any one part).
Part 1: Build a web page with HTML and JS only (use some CSS if you like pretty things). The trick for this one is to use base JS only, no JQuery or anything like that. Do all DOM manipulation using JS only.
Part 2: Build the same thing (or refactor existing) using a templating tool such as Handlebars or for additional challenge build your own rudimentary templating tool.
Part 3: Build the same using a full-on framework such as Angular, React, Ember, Elm or whatever flavor of the day your feeling.
Build whatever you are comfortable with - a hello world if you wish. But if you really want to realize the value of the challenge - try something that interacts with an API that returns data (and handle the possible failure of the API call or no data response).
We do depend on frameworks for a lot. And yeah it's not always necessary to do so, but if you decide you'll have a go at not using one you may end up rolling your own. Depends on what you're going for...either way it's good to know what life is like on either side.